Generally speaking, tumors that grow in the brain are often good candidates for radiosurgery. This involves an application of radiation that goes through the skull and tissue and concentrates on the targeted mass. The whole process is bloodless, so skin and skull do not have to be opened to apply.
Radiosurgery is the common term for a type of radiation therapy that is usually done on the brain. Also known as stereotactic surgery, it usually involves one application of strong radiation concentrated on the tumor, yet saving the healthy normal tissue. The patient will receive radiation via linear accelerator or some radiation source directed by a collator. There will be many small beams sent through the skull into the brain converging on the mass. Radiation therapy will work both for malignant and non-malignant tumors.
Types of Radiation Brain Surgery
Radiation therapy has been a great boost for the field of brain surgery. This is a technique that will not only mean less invasive methods, but the patient's cost and recovery time is greatly reduced.
Radiation particles come in many forms, for example the company Elekta's radiosurgery tool, the "Gamma Knife," uses doses of gamma rays that bombard the cancer growth. This uses 201 beams of small focused radiation to converge onto the cancer tumor. The source of radiation comes from an isotope of cobalt. The concept was created more that 30 years ago by a scientist named Lars Leksel, Professor of Neurosurgery at Karolinsk Institute in Stockholm, Sweden.
Another radiosurgery tool, with the trade name Cyberknife, sends out tumor killing x-rays instead of Gamma ones. The beam is controlled by a robotic arm that uses data from mapping software to target the mass. The software that is used, called 6D, maps the tumor in an unusual way. It will compensate for patient movement as well as use the x-ray data to pinpoint the targeted area while compensating for projected error. They claim to bring the accuracy to 0.5 mm of error. Like the Gammaknife, it can be used for both malignant and non-malignant matter. However, one main different between the two is that Gammaknife is designed only for cranial radiation therapy.
Patient Expectations with Radiosurgery
Because the radiation therapy is done non-invasively, patients will spend less time recovering, often not even needing to recover by rest at all. In the example of using the Gamma Knife procedure, the patient can resume normal activity a day after the procedure.
The Gamma Knife does take long to administer either. It can take 15 minutes to an hour of set up. There are some surgical procedures that are done on the cranium to fit the headset where the beamlets are to be sent through.
It is inevitable in many industries that workers will be exposed to dangerous substances, causing the need for considerable safety efforts like wearing protective clothing, such as a disposable shoe cover set or disposable shirts. A split second of simple exposure to dangerous substances can result in blindness, burns, breathing complications, and death. This is why safety should be a paramount concern and workers should keep safety in mind to prevent accident or injury when working with dangerous substances.
The Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System (WHMIS)
The WHMIS is a detailed education program and standardized system for those working with chemicals. It includes recommendations on how to work with and store various chemicals, including those posing injury, biohazard, fire, and chronic health condition dangers. The WHMIS provides a comprehensive set of safety procedures and outlines what workers should do in the event of a mishap.
The largest part of the WHMIS includes Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) that list the labeling requirements, handling procedures, safety information, and dangers for each hazardous chemical. Every business that works with chemicals is required to have these sheets readily available at all times. The employees working with hazardous chemicals should thoroughly understand how these sheets work.
Disposable Shoe Cover Sets And Other Forms Of Protective Apparel
Besides having the proper education to work with dangerous substances, workers should wear safety apparel such as disposable shirts, disposable pants, disposable shoe cover sets, rubber gloves, and more. The protective apparel needed depends on the chemicals and other dangerous substances worked with. For example, flame retardant disposable shirts and apparel are required for workers working with flammable chemicals. Workers may need a full suit and a disposable shoe cover set or they may just need a disposable shirt to protect against chemical splash.
Other Forms Of Safety Equipment Needed
In addition to protective apparel, workers will often require special safety equipment. For example, chemicals that give off fumes or that spray will usually require the use of a respirator or a lightweight particulate mask for protection. Depending on the situation, eye and ear protection may be required.
Outside Factor Concerns
Area safety is crucial as outside factors commonly cause accidents, including sharp objects tearing through a disposable shoe cover set or a sparking machine that ignites flammable substances. Other employees can also often present significant dangers. This can be prevented by making sure workers have adequate training and are aware of the proper safety procedures. The best way to prevent accidents and injuries is by identifying and pointing out potential hazards and dangerous situations.
Be Prepared To Deal With Accidents
Make sure the work area is prepared for every potential accident, including having medical necessities such as a fully stocked first aid kit and an eyewash station along with workers trained in administering any first aid needed.
Work areas should also have cleaning supplies adequate for quickly cleaning up a spill or any type of liquid contamination, such as cleaning up an oily spill with sawdust or kitty litter. In addition, a team of specialists should be ready to contain any mess within minutes of it happening.
When failing to take property safety precautions, the workplace can become a dangerous place. Items such as a disposable shoe cover set, disposable shirts, respirators, protective goggles, first aid kits, and more play a vital role in keeping workers safe when working with hazardous chemicals and other dangerous substances.
Finding work in any kind of laboratory can be an exciting career but it can also be pretty dangerous, if you aren't careful. Most labs are full of chemicals and precision instruments that can be hazardous if misused.
Knowing little or nothing about what kind of hazards can arise in your workplace can actually make you much more vulnerable to injury, which is the last thing you need at work.
That is why many laboratories develop what are called Chemical Hygiene Plans, often shortened to CHPs to help to inform their workers how to monitor their use of potentially perilous substances in the lab setting.
If the lab in which you work does not have its own CHP, you should sensitively suggest to one of your supervisors that you develop one, and it should include some of the following things.
This may seem like a given, but be sure to have clearly posted the contact information of all important laboratory personnel. Also have easy access to numbers for Poison Control and other emergency services. Do not hesitate to make contact with supervisors or medical services when necessary.
Every member of the laboratory team needs to agree upon a set of procedures to enact when there is an emergency, including an evacuation route. The route should be posted clearly, and there should be frequent reminders of the plan. It should be included in training sessions for new workers.
Be sure to maintain an accurate chemical inventory. Make sure that this inventory is given an easily discernable title and heading. Make sure it includes the room number and building name, the name of the department, the person who is responsible for making the inventory, and the date which it was made.
The list of chemicals itself should in a concise manner identify the chemical name, the approximate amount, the location of that chemical within the lab, any possible quantity changes, and some basic hazard warnings, which can be limited to abbreviations like "TOX," for toxic. Make sure these things are understood by all staff.
All kinds of laboratories across various industries are in need temperature sensors. Make sure that yours are up to date with advancing technology and as sensitive as you need them to be. Teach all employees to pay close attention to them to avoid burns or contact with materials not suitable for handling.
When your employees are well educated and prepared, they will be safer all-around, which continues to make their work more exciting and rewarding. And when their work is rewarding, they will certainly be more productive and that benefits everybody.
As I've been saying in previous articles one of my mottos in life is 'question everything.' When it comes to the appliance of science and scientific principles this motto should definitely be used. Don't get me wrong, science is a wonderful thing but like many other things I realize that it can be exploited, manipulated and deliberately limited for profit and political gain when put in the hands of the few, particularly those heading greed-driven corporations...
In light of this here is my bad science corporate sponsored A-Z guide.
Absence of controls -Treatment is given to the experimental group to see if it has any significant effects compared to the untreated control group. A cardinal sin in science is an absence of controls. This occurred in a case where claims by a certain cosmetics corporation were made on an anti-wrinkle product. The claim was later invalidated because it was found that there had been no controls.
Bias -Due to conflict of interest bias has found its way into scientific research quite frequently. Misrepresented science has been covertly used for financial or personal gain...
Cherry Picking - Involves selecting data to favour research that was done while leaving out that which goes against it.
Disguising speculation as fact - For example, Darwin's theory of evolution has been used as if it's a fact but is only a theory...
There are many cases where language disguises speculation as fact. For instance this can occur when using scientific conclusion. This can mislead using speculative words like 'can,' 'may' or 'could' in say clinical drug trials when the research is trying to disguise the fact that it doesn't have any solid findings...
Exaggerate - See play on words
Fiddling results - People are apt to blindly accept the work of scientific authority individuals... Take the case of educational psychologist the late Cyril Burt. He fiddled his results from research to make the false claim that individuals IQ's (intelligence quotients) cannot be changed. Consequently, based on Burt's advice the educational authorities used the 11 plus exam to determine the long-term future of children pending whether or not they passed or failed...
However, it was later found through different and more honest research that IQ can change over time in individuals. So rather than use the 11 plus aptitude test to determine the future of 11 year old children possibly for the rest of their lives while their IQ's could change and be more suitable for other things... it was scrapped.
Gagging results - Not allowing conflicting evidence or data that challenges the official view. For example, Michael Cremo has done meticulous research to challenge the official line that mankind's history is a lot older than what mainstream academics have claimed. A number of People in academia questioning the official line using Cremo's work as examples of evidence have been threatened with dismissal if they don't put the lid on it...
Hypothesis -A hypothesis is where a scientist has a theory that something is occurring in reality. So he/she devises an experiment to see if it actually is happening in reality. However, bad science is where the reverse happens instead of seeing if the theory fits reality, the reverse happens: reality is looked at to if it fits into the theory! This is done to make twisted claims about something usually because of vested interest.
Inadequate sample sizes - Significant findings from small sample sizes could well be valid. However, sometimes in corporate research the fact exists that these tentative insubstantial findings due to only a small number are played down: The fact that large sample sizes produce different results can be covered up...
Justify -Corporate sponsored science with its covered up flaws and omissions uses its work as justification to take certain actions. These actions are profit-related or political and can involve paying off mainstream media corporations to blurt out their bad contradictory science to promote harmful products on an uninformed public. This occurs in vaccines and GMO's. As geneticist David Suzuki said in so many words anybody who thinks GMO's are harmless is either stupid or lying...
Knack -Getting the knack for how corporate science can be used to manipulate can put you at quite an advantage. Learn to discern for your own personal effectiveness!
Low key publishing - Putting out research papers at certain times when it would receive possibly little attention. The papers could be quite significant but because it could threaten the establishment's scientific model by say the research revealing a cheaper alternative method of application then low key publishing serves to not give it too much attention.
An example of this was the case of an extensive cancer prevention study in 2007 involving hundreds and hundreds of women in Creighton School of Medicine Nebraska receiving daily doses of sunlight. The result concluded that the regular daily doses of sunlight prevented cancer by a whopping great 77%. These revelations were basically ignored because the cancer establishment can't have this prevention too widely known since it would be a serious threat to their business as sunlight treatment is free.
Misguiding or Misrepresenting - Again that hoary old chestnut money kicks in here. The truth is when it comes to corporate sponsored science money has been shown to be stronger than truth.
Non-existent science - Journals sometimes even the prestigious ones like those documenting medical research have been widely criticized for being unscientific.
Oversimplify - The dangers here could be to misguide but that could be an ulterior motive...
Play on words -Scientific publications play on words like for instance the use of exaggeration or even worse sensationalism to gain attention... It may hide the fact that the interested reader might not see right through the oversimplifications involved...
Quality and Quantity - Science can sometimes misrepresent by failing to distinguish the differences between quality and quantity as in the cases of inadequate sample sizes, cherry picking or including evidence to the contrary...
Restricting data - In other words not including the science that's inexplicable or evidence to the contrary in a research project's findings, which would not favour the desired results.
Sensationalism - See 'Play on words.'
The ignored flaws - Even peer reviewed science can sometimes be flawed. Sometimes this can be forgotten and this has to be considered when evaluating research.
Unrepresentative samples of the population - Another cover up where selective samples are used atypical of the population en masse to influence a desired outcome...
Vaccinations - I would say that flawed scientific research is at its greatest when it comes to vaccines and vaccinations. The whole history is rooted in bad science and deception.
Win -win situations -Used to bias. An example of this is in the case of animal experiments. An animal's physiology is indeed different to a human's. In research, a pharmaceutical company can use this to their advantage: For example, if animal experiments produce positive outcomes in drug trials then the fact that the animal's physiology is different to humans is ignored, claiming success. If the outcomes are negative then this will also be ignored, claiming success on account that the animal's physiology is different to human's recommending not to pay too much attention to this. Yes, it's a win-win situation.
X-rays in cancer therapy -In breast cancer therapy x-ray treatment is big business. The fact that it can cause significant amounts of breast cancer through its mutagenic effects during treatment with the science to prove it is kept under wraps and seems irrelevant to those making big money from the treatment. Infrared thermography is the solution since basically it does not harm.
Your participation - In other words for bad science to work it must have your participation in falling for the deceptions, so learn to discern!
Zest for profit bias! I know this is derivative but what else can you think of for z?!
If you want to be health savvy, if this hasn't been done already, then do educate yourself on the shocking truth about AIDS: How a multi-billion dollar industry was invented on the false premise a fictitious infection called HIV which was said have caused AIDS...
In truth AIDS can only be described as an umbrella term for a jumble of some 30 illnesses. All these illnesses basically can be explained by where sufferers have had their immune system compromised, caused mainly by poverty related circumstances (as AIDS in Africa)and the effects of taking drugs... such as a heavy long-term taking of recreational drugs.
Before I go into it I will give those of you who doubt a quote
"All truth passes through three stages. First, it is ridiculed. Second, it is violently opposed. Third, it is accepted as being self-evident."
-Arthur Schopenhauer (German philosopher 1788-1860)
-The history behind the HIV = AIDS theory and the suspicious circumstances surrounding how it came to be. How the work of Luc Montagnier and Robert Gallo did not follow protocol and this has not been followed to this day.
- The HIV virion has never been isolated and identified. You can Google HIV and see lots of pictures but they ONLY show something that looks like HIV.
-The gene belonging to HIV that causes the harm has never been identified.
-The evidence shows that HIV does not cause AIDS. For one of examples a random number of Japanese people were found to be HIV positive by 25% percent but remained healthy having had no indicators to have AIDS.
-The idea that there's a latent period where the HIV virus kicks in with illness symptoms a long time after infection (say for example a couple of years...) has never been proven.
-The laboratory test methods for HIV (ELIZA, Western Blotting and PCR (polymerase chain reaction)) are greatly flawed, inaccurate and unreliable. There are around 60 false indicators. The sets of criteria for a positive indication from the results of the tests vary across country. You could be negative in one country while positive in another!
-The medical / pharmaceutical drugs for AIDS can do far more harm than good. With these antiviral drugs there comes a warning that if taken AIDS-like symptoms could manifest. -That's because the effects are the same as AIDS since the immune system will be devastated by the antivirals!
-The AIDS cases stats are flawed and allow more expensive and unnecessary pharmaceutical treatment to be used.
-The solution is to be savvy and first refuse or don't take the HIV test. Staying healthy means devoting your life to maintaining a healthy immune system through good nutrition and lots of clean drinking water, exercise frequently, have an up happy outlook on life and steer clear of toxicity where you can.
-It is hoped that this article encourages the reader to do their research and find out the truth about AIDS for themselves.
Laboratory managers oversee the operations of many different types of laboratories, including medical, criminal, research and research and development labs. Lab managers supervise laboratory technologists and technicians, ensure that the lab is compliant with applicable regulations and regularly review and revise laboratory procedures.
Medical laboratory managers work in hospitals, doctor's offices and stand-alone clinics, supervising staff that process specimens and samples for diagnostic purposes. Managers of medical labs typically begin their careers as medical laboratory technologists and develop their supervisory and management skills on the job.
Step 1: Complete the Relevant Education
Upon graduation from high school, those interested in working in laboratory settings may pursue a 1-year laboratory technician certificate, 2-year laboratory technologist degree or 4-year degree in biology, biochemistry or other health and science fields. Suitable programs include coursework in human anatomy and physiology, medical terminology, epidemiology, health care management and biochemistry. Many hiring companies may prefer candidates who hold a bachelor's degree in a related field; regardless of educational background, potential employees are expected to have additional experience working within a clinical laboratory setting.
Look for internship opportunities. Internships provide aspiring laboratory managers with the opportunity to learn their craft through hands-on experience under the direction of senior lab technologists and scientists. Interns with advanced training may assist technologists with reading and recording test results, processing medical specimens and handling laboratory equipment.
Step 2: Meet Any Licensure and Certification Requirements
Some management positions require prerequisite training as a laboratory technologist, which requires licensure in some states. Licensure requirements vary by state, but often necessitate the aspiring technologist to complete an approved educational program, have clinical experience working in a lab and pass a licensing exam.
Employers may look for applicants with certification as a laboratory technologist, which is available from professional associations such as American Medical Technologists (AMT) and the American Society for Clinical Pathology (ASCP). Qualifications vary, but usually require that the certification candidate hold recognized educational credentials and pass a certifying exam.
Research continuing education requirements. Individuals with a license and/or certification should familiarize themselves with the necessary continuing education requirements and complete continuing education courses as needed for renewal.
Step 3: Gain Experience
Laboratory managers often attain their higher-level position after several years of experience working as lab technicians or technologists. Depending on the job duties, some managers may have first worked in administrative positions in healthcare settings, including medical offices, clinics and hospitals. Technicians and technologists can also gain management experience by working as lab supervisors before they become lab managers.
Join a professional association for laboratory technologists. Professional associations, like the Clinical Laboratory Management Association (CLMA) and American Society for Clinical Laboratory Science (ASCLS), offer development and networking opportunities.
Earn a graduate degree. While not an absolute requirement for becoming a medical lab manager, earning a graduate degree in a relevant field can be helpful in career development. Some possible fields to consider include master's degrees in business administration, public health or doctoral degrees in chemistry or the biological sciences.
Obtain the Diplomate of Laboratory Management (DLP) credential. The DLP is a recognized certification offered by the ASCP. This voluntary credential can often benefit a lab manager's career by showing advanced skill in the field. In addition to passing a certification examination, candidates for the DLP must document that they meet one of the approved sets of qualifications, comprised of various levels of education, certifications and work experience.
Â· Clinical laboratory science professionals work primarily in a laboratory and while technicians and technologists don't often see patients, they play a large role in patient care. They're called upon to perform tests, procedures, or research that contributes to the detection and treatment of disease. Often they assist physicians in making a correct patient diagnosis.
Â· Working as a Technologist or Technician
Â· Following the completion of their online career training, technicians and technologists often take jobs in physicians' offices, hospitals, outpatient clinics, research laboratories, government agencies, college and university research facilities. They can continue their learning to qualify for specializations as cytotechnoligists, diagnostic molecular scientists, histotechnologists, or phlebotomists.
Â· Technicians and technologists perform many of the same duties. They work in hospital and clinic laboratories performing tests on patient samples, such as blood and urine. They evaluate the tests and pass along the results to other medical professionals. Depending upon their specialization, these professionals work with ever-advancing computer and medical device technology. Their ultimate level of training and experience often dictates their day-to-day duties.
Â· Online Clinical Laboratory Technician or Technologist Training
Â· Online career training programs offer a blend of distance learning along with directly supervised practical laboratory experience. Some colleges offer training in a series of intensive week-long or multiple-week seminars that combine online studies with on-location practice.
Â· Clinical laboratory science majors typically become clinical laboratory technicians and technologists. Technologists have completed at least a bachelor's degree and are required to be nationally certified. Technicians usually have an associate's degree or certificate, and they are supervised by clinical laboratory technologists.
Â· Clinical laboratory science majors usually are required to take many science courses, including biology and organic chemistry. Courses in urinalysis, microbiology, and lab techniques are also required. At the bachelor's degree level, classes include detailed studies in the biological sciences, microbiology, mathematics, statistics, chemistry, and computer programs.
Â· Technicians may advance their careers by completing their bachelor's degree, while technologists may move into leadership roles following post-graduate studies in management or business. Some states require working laboratory technicians or technologists to hold licenses or registrations. Technologists typically become licensed after passing a state exam. There are also online programs leading to PhDs in the health sciences.
You May Qualify For Financial Aid.